Teacher Recruitment and Retention

  • There is increasing evidence of a crisis in teacher recruitment and retention just as the number of pupils and the demand for new teachers begins to increase sharply.  Excessive workload and attacks on pay are driving away teachers and deterring new recruits.
  • In May 2016, the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee criticised the DfE’s attempts to recruit teachers and stated in a report that the Department had no plan for how to meet its ITT recruitment targets and did  not understand ”the difficult reality that many schools face in recruiting teachers”.
  • Initial Teacher Training (ITT) figures for 2017/18 show that the Government recruited only 90% of the Teacher Supply Model target. The overall contribution to the secondary target was just 80%, meaning nearly 4,000 places went unfilled. This is a significant decline in recruitment since the year previous, when the contribution to the secondary target was 87% (2228 places unfilled).1
  • Since 2015/16, ITT figures have included applicants for Teach First, who were previously excluded from these statistics. This boosted the overall figure for 2017/18 by over 1,000 applicants. Despite the inclusion of Teach First applicants in the ITT statistics, the overall TSM target was not met, for the fifth year in a row.2 
  • In 2017/18, the only subjects where the Teacher Supply Model (TSM) recruitment target was met were history and PE. All other secondary subjects were under-recruited, and some significantly so. For instance, maths recruited just 79% of the required number of trainees, physics 68% and computing 66%.3
  • An NUT survey of leadership group members carried out in March 2016 found that nearly three quarters (73%) of school leaders were experiencing difficulties in recruiting teachers, with 61% saying that the situation had got worse (42%) or much worse (19%) over the last year. The greatest problem areas were in Maths (36% of schools leaders were struggling to recruit in this area), science (34%) and English (23%).
  • The crisis in teacher recruitment means that whilst schools are struggling to fill vacancies, large numbers of pupils are being taught by teachers who do not have a relevant qualification in the subject. For instance, in 2016 only 63 per cent of physics and 75 per cent of chemistry teachers held a relevant post A-level qualification in the subject. For maths and English, these figures were 78 and 81 per cent respectively.4
  • DfE figures show that in the 12 months to November 2016 (the most recent year for which statistics are available) over 50,000 qualified teachers in England left the state sector, which  equates to one in ten teachers leaving the profession.. The number of teachers leaving as a proportion of the total number of teachers in service, known as the ‘wastage rate’, is 10.5 per cent.5 The same figures reveal that more than 100,000 potential teachers have never taught, despite finishing their training.
  • In October 2016, the Government confirmed that nearly a third of teachers who joined the profession in 2010 had left teaching within five years. Of the 21,400 teachers who started working in English state schools in 2010, over 6,400 (30%) had quit by 2015.6 DfE figures show that this trend is continuing: of the teachers who joined the profession in 2011, only 69% were still teaching five years later. 
  • The DfE statistics also highlight the increasing number of teaching posts that schools are not able to fill permanently; in November 2016 there were 920 teacher vacancies and 3280 temporarily filled posts where a vacancy existed.7These figures represent an additional 600 unfilled posts from the year previous. 
  • Analysis by the Labour Party has estimated that secondary schools spent £56 million on advertising for vacant posts in 2015, which was a 61% increase from 2010.
  • In 2016 the decrease in the number of qualified teachers and the increase in the number of unqualified teachers continued from the year previous. In November 2016, there were 500 fewer qualified teachers in service than in the previous year.  Conversely, there were 1400 more teachers in service without qualified teacher status then there had been the year before.8 
  • In July 2017, the DfE reported that the number of children enrolled in state schools would increase by almost 800,000 within the next decade.9 The Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) estimates that, in order to maintain the current pupil:teacher ratio, there would need to be an additional 30,000 teachers in the profession by 2020 to deal with the increase in pupil numbers.10
  • In July 2017, the School Teachers’ Review Body stated that there is a ‘real risk that schools will not be able to recruit and retain a workforce of high quality teachers to support pupil achievement’ particularly in light of the predicted increase in pupil numbers. The STRB went on to state that ‘the evidence supports the case for an uplift to the pay framework which will strengthen the position of teaching in relation to other graduate professions and start to mitigate recruitment and retention pressures’ and recommended that the DfE review the current pay and allowance framework for classroom teachers.11
  • A survey published in October 2015 by the NUT and YouGov found that over half of teachers were thinking of leaving teaching in the next two years citing ‘volume of workload’ (61%) and ‘seeking better work/life balance’ (57%) as the two top issues causing them to consider this.12
  • The Government can ill-afford to lose valuable teachers at any time, but especially not in the present context of sharply rising pupil numbers.  Securing teacher supply for the future and preventing teacher wastage requires action to ensure teaching remains an attractive profession for graduates, in particular by offering professional levels of pay and by reducing workload. .

1 DfE – Statistics: initial teacher training. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/initial-teacher-training-trainee-number-census-2017-to-2018

2 Ibid

3 Ibid

4 DfE – School workforce in England, November 2016 Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/school-workforce-in-england-november-2016

5 Ibid

6 The Guardian (October 2016) Almost a third of teachers quit state sector within five years of qualifying. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/oct/24/almost-third-of-teachers-quit-within-five-years-of-qualifying-figures

7 DFE – Statistics – national statistics - School Workforce in England: November 2016.  Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/school-workforce-in-england-november-2016

8 Ibid

9 National pupil projections: July 2017 – Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-pupil-projections-july-2017

10 http://www.ifs.org.uk/publications/8027

11 School Teachers’ Review Body – 27th Report – Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/626156/59497_School_Teachers_Review_Accessible.pdf

12 NUT commissioned YouGov poll of 1020 teachers carried out in June/July 2015 and published in October 2015. Available at: https://www.teachers.org.uk/news-events/press-releases-england/nutyougov-teacher-survey-government-education-policy